That the spread of rural capitalism, with all its consequences (land expropriation, the deepening of social distances, the breakdown of collective relations) was a decisive fac­tor in the background of the witch-hunt is also proven by the fact that the majority of those accused were poor peasant women – cottars, wage laborers – while those who accused them were wealthy and prestigious members of the community, often their employers or landlords, that is, individuals who were part of the local power structures and often had close ties with the central State. Only as the persecution progressed, and the fear of witches (as well as the fear of being accused of witchcraft, or of “subversive asso­ciation”) was sowed among the population, did accusations also come from neighbors. In England, the witches were usually old women on public assistance or women who sur­vived by going from house to house begging for bits of food or a pot of wine or milk; if they were married, their husbands were day laborers, but more often they were wid­ows and lived alone. Their poverty stands out in the confessions.

Silvia FEDERICI, Caliban and the Witch, p. 171
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