Archives de Tag: Economie

As the men migr…

As the men migrate, or do not have the money to support a family, and as the state lacks or is presumed not to have funds to invest in social reproduction, a new patriarchal regime comes into existence, that places women in the “Third World” under the control of the World Bank, the IMF and the many NGOs that manage “income generating projects” and “aid” programs.
These are the new supervisors and exploiters of women’s reproductive work, and this new patriarchy relies on the collaboration of European and North American women who, like new missionaries, are recruited to train women in the “colonies” to develop the attitudes necessary to become integrated in the global economy.

Silvia Federici, « Reproduction and Feminist struggle in the new international division of labor » (1999), in Revolution at point Zero : Housework Reproduction and Feminist Struggle, p. 74-75

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Witch hunting was also instrumental to the construction of a new patriarchal order where women’s bodies, their labor, their sexual and reproductive powers were placed under the control of the state and transformed into economic resources.This means that the witch hunters were less interested in the punishment of any specific transgressions than in the elimination of generalized forms of female behavior which they no longer tolerated and had to be made abominable in the eyes of the population. That the charges in the trials often referred to events that had occurred decades earlier, that witchcraft was made a crimen exceptum, that is, a crime to be investigated by special means, torture included, and it was punishable even in the absence of any proven damage to persons and things -all these factors indicate that the target of the witch-hunt – (as it is often true with political repression in times of intense social change and conflict) -were not socially recognized crimes, but previously accepted practices and groups of individuals that had to be eradicated from the community, through terror and criminalization. In this sense, the charge of witchcraft performed a function similar to that performed by “high trea­son” (which, significantly, was introduced into the English legal code in the same years), and the charge of “terrorism” in our times. The very vagueness of the charge – the fact that it was impossible to prove it, while at the same time it evoked the maximum of hor­ror – meant that it could be used to punish any form of protest and to generate suspi­cion even towards the most ordinary aspects of daily life.

Silvia FEDERICI, Caliban and the Witch, p. 170

En fait, les interventions de la force publique dans les pratiques hétérosexuelles masculines (d’hommes appartenant généralement à une classe défavorisée) comme la réorientation vers l’autre sexe de la stigmatisation sexuelle dans certaines fractions de la classe moyenne peuvent être rapprochées de transformations plus générales, elles-mêmes à l’origine de l’essor des services sexuels11. Pour le XIXe siècle industriel et le début du XXe siècle, le « mal » de la prostitution résidait dans la prostituée elle-même12 et les écrits classiques de sciences sociales voyaient dans la prostitution en tant qu’institution sociale l’ultime métaphore de l’exploitation inhérente au travail rémunéré13. Toutefois, à la fin du XXe siècle, avec le passage d’une économie fondée sur la production à une économie fondée sur la consommation, la critique morale et la réforme politique changent progressivement leur angle de vue : la prostituée est désormais une « victime » ou une « travailleuse du sexe »14, l’attention et la sanction n’étant plus dirigées vers les pratiques professionnelles mais reportées sur le comportement de consommation.

Bernstein Elizabeth et Wirth Françoise, « Ce qu’acheter veut dire » Désir, demande et commerce du sexe, Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales, 2013/3 N° 198, p. 64